“Evaluation of the effects of tiptopp’s novel products on penaeid shrimp (penaeus vannamei, (bonne, 1931) growth performance and water quality under a controlled condition”
The trial results in proof of concept that the applications of the Tiptopp’s probiotics are able to improve the growth performance and survival rate of whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). Besides on that, the products have a potential on reducing total ammonia nitrogen and nitrite in shrimp culture.
Tiptopp Aquaculture conducted a joint 42-day feeding trial to assess the effects of 2 Tiptopp’s probiotics products [Tiptopp Pond (TP) and Tiptopp AquaG (TG)] on the growth performance of whiteleg (Penaeus vannamei, Bonne, 1931) (1Holthuis, 1980) juvenile shrimp. The trial consisted of four levels of applications of the test products [T1 (Control): 0g/m3 TP+ 0g/Kg TG); T2: 1g/m3 TP+ 1g/Kg TG; T3: 2g/m3 TP + 2g/Kg TG, and T4: 4g/m3 TP+ 4g/Kg TG]. In which, the TP was top-coated on a commercial feed and the TG was applied for water treatment daily as bioremediation. Each level of application was randomly assigned to triplicates of 50 shrimp (average initial weight = 2.06 ± 0.16g) per 350L tanks. Shrimp were acclimated for 9 days and then fed five times daily with respective diets to apparent satiation for the following period of 42 days in laboratory conditions. At the trial termination, all shrimp were individually weighted and counted to evaluate survival rate and growth performance.
Table. 1 Treatment definition of the trial
|No||Treatment||Tiptopp’s test products application|
|1||Control (T1)||0g/m3 Tiptopp Pond (Water treatment) + 0g/Kg Tiptopp AquaG (Top-coating on feed)|
|2||Treatment 2 (T2)||1g/m3 Tiptopp Pond (Water treatment) + 1g/Kg Tiptopp AquaG (Top-coating on feed)|
|3||Treatment 3 (T3)||2g/m3 Tiptopp Pond (Water treatment) + 2g/Kg Tiptopp AquaG (Top-coating on feed)|
|4||Treatment 4 (T4)||4g/m3 Tiptopp Pond (Water treatment) + 4g/Kg Tiptopp AquaG (Top coating on feed)|
After 42 days of the feeding period, the results showed that the minimum dose usage of the products was able to significantly improve growth performance and survivability of shrimp as compared with those of the control (P<0.05). A positive correlation between survival rates and application levels of the test products was observed that the survival rates were 76.30 ± 3.39 %, 83.70 ± 1.28%, 84.44 ± 4.44, 86.67 ± 5.88 to T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively.
Water quality parameters were maintained at the optimal range for shrimp growth performance during the trial and there were no significant differences among treatments (P>0.05). However, total ammonia nitrogen and nitre were well-managed in the treatment groups as compared to the control group.
1. Water quality parameters
Throughout the trial, water quality parameters were recorded and presented as Table 2 below.
Table 2. Water quality parameter during the trial
|Treatment||T1 (Control )||T2 (Recipe #1)||T3 (Recipe #2)||T4 (Recipe #3)|
|pH||7.94 ± 0.08a||7.95 ± 0.08a||7.95 ± 0.08a||7.93 ± 0.08a|
|Temp (oC)||28.19 ± 0.58a||28.15 ± 0.58a||28.15 ± 0.57a||28.14 ± 0.57a|
|DO (mg/L)||6.14 ± 0.09a||6.14 ± 0.07a||6.14 ± 0.09a||6.14 ± 0.08a|
|TAN (ppm)||0.17 ± 0.16a||0.09 ± 0.09a||0.11 ± 0.14a||0.08 ± 0.16a|
|Nitrite (ppm)||2.38 ± 0.51a||2.15 ± 0.55a||2.08 ± 0.64a||2.31 ± 0.48a|
|Alkalinity (ppm)||159.23 ± 14.41a||160.00 ± 12.91a||157.69 ± 14.23a||151.54 ± 14.05a|
|Salinity (ppt)||20.67 ± 0.48a||20.69 ± 0.47a||20.71 ± 0.46a||20.69 ± 0.47a|
Values are presented as mean (n = 3) ± standard deviation. The same letters on the same column are presented for not significant differences (P > 0.05).
Throughout the trial, water quality parameters included salinity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrate, and alkalinity were maintained at optimal ranges for shrimp growth performance. There were no significantly statistical differences in terms of water quality parameters among groups. However, a slight improvement in terms of TAN and nitrite in treatment groups compared to the control group was observed.
Fig. 1 Total ammonia nitrogen of the trial
Fig. 3 Nitrite nitrogen of the trial
2. Survival rate and growth performance of shrimp after 42 days of feeding trial
After 42 days of the trial, survival rates and growth performance of shrimp are described as Table 3 below.
Table 3 Growth performance parameters and survival rates.
|Variables||T1 ( Control)||T2 (Recipe #1)||T3 (Recipe #2)||T4 (Repipe #3)|
|Final mean weight (g)||14.41 ± 0.22a||16.40 ± 0.03b||16.16 ± 0.32b||16.30 ± 0.51b|
|Mean weight gain (g)||12.35 ± 0.22a||14.34 ± 0.03b||14.10 ± 0.32b||14.24 ± 0.51b|
|ADG (g/day)||0.29 ± 0.01a||0.34 ± 0.00b||0.34 ± 0.01b||0.34 ± 0.01b|
|SGR (%/day)||4.63 ± 0.04a||4.94 ± 0.00b||4.91 ± 0.05b||4.93 ± 0.07b|
|FCR||1.23 ± 0.07a||0.96 ± 0.02b||0.97 ± 0.04b||0.92 ± 0.04b|
|Survival rate (%)||76.30 ± 3.39a||83.70 ± 1.28ab||84.44 ± 4.44ab||86.67 ± 5.88b|
Values are presented as mean (n = 3) ± standard deviation. The same letters on the same row are presented for not significant differences (P > 0.05).
Fig. 4 Shrimp sizes at the end of the trial
The results indicate that the application of the probiotics products significantly improved growth performance and survival rates of shrimp as compared with those of the control. A positive correlation between survival rates and application levels of the test products was observed and survivability of the shrimp treated with the highest dose usage was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control.
Fig. 5 Survival rates at the end of the trial
The final mean weight, average daily growth (ADG, g/day), specific growth rate (SGR, %/day), and FCR of the shrimp in treatment groups were significantly improved (P<0.05. However, there were no statistical differences (P>0.05) among treatment groups that revealed the lowest dose usage of the products (1g/m3 Tiptopp Pond+1g/Kg Tiptopp Gut) was able to increase growth performance and survivability of shrimp.